Fire safety assessment methods and techniques

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assessment method

I. Evaluation content

(1) Analyze the possible sources of fire hazards within the area, rationally divide the evaluation unit, and establish a comprehensive evaluation index system;

(2) Qualitative and quantitative classification of the evaluation unit, and establishment of a weight system in conjunction with expert opinion;

(3) To make an objective and fair assessment of the fire risk in the region;

(d) Provide reasonable and feasible fire safety measures and planning suggestions.

Second, the assessment process

Regional fire risk assessments can be performed in the following six steps.

(I) Information Collection

On the basis of clarifying the purpose and content of fire risk assessment, collect all kinds of required information, and focus on collecting information related to regional security, which may include: assessment of population, economic, traffic, etc. in the region, status of key fire units in the region, Peripheral environment, related information of municipal fire-fighting facilities, emergency rescue plans for fire accidents, and fire safety rules and regulations.

(B) Risk Identification

The source of fire risk refers to all sources that can influence the evaluation result of the target object. Through data analysis and on-site investigation, the sources of fire risk of the assessment objects are searched for, and the locations and methods of their existence, as well as the pathways and the laws of their occurrence, are determined. Then, based on the collected information, analyze the various influencing factors related to regional fire risk. The source of fire risk is generally divided into objective and human factors.

1. Objective factors

1 ) Meteorological factors cause fire

The number of fires is closely related to the meteorological conditions. Meteorological factors that affect fires include gale, precipitation, high temperature, and lightning strikes.

2 ) Electrically induced fire

3 ) Fire caused by flammable and explosive materials

2. Human factors

1 ) Fire caused by carelessness

2 ) Unsafe smoking causes fire

3 ) Artificial arson

(III) Establishment of evaluation index system

Based on the identification of fire risk sources, further analysis of influencing factors and their interrelationships, selection of major factors, neglect of secondary factors, and classification of each influencing factor in accordance with different levels to form different levels of evaluation index system. Regional fire risk assessment is generally divided into two or three levels. Units in each level are further divided into several factors according to their needs. Then the fire risk degree of each factor is analyzed from the possibility of fire occurrence and fire hazard, etc. The degree of risk is the basis for conducting a system hazard analysis, and on this basis, the fire risk level of the assessment object is determined.

Regional fire risk assessment can choose the following levels of index system structure.

1. First-level indicators

Generally include fire hazards, regional basic information, firefighting capabilities, and social prevention and control capabilities.

2. Secondary indicators

Including objective factors, human factors, urban public fire infrastructure, fire-fighting and rescue capabilities, fire management, fire protection education, and disaster resilience.

3. Third-level indicators

(D) Risk Analysis and Calculation

According to the characteristics of different levels of assessment indicators, choose a reasonable assessment method, determine the risk probability according to different risk factors, and perform quantitative or qualitative analysis and calculation to determine the risk level of each risk factor according to the impact degree of each risk factor on the assessment target. .

1. Quantify and deal with risk factors

2. Fuzzy set value statistics

3 indicator weight determination

At present, the commonly used methods for evaluating index weights at home and abroad are expert scoring (ie, Delphi ), set-valued statistics iteration, and AHP, and fuzzy set-value statistics.

4. Risk level judgment

5. Risk classification

In accordance with the actual situation of regional fire prevention and control, based on the quantitative range , the fire accident classification grading standard in the Notice on Adjusting Fire Rating Standards issued by the Ministry of Public Security in 2007 was divided into four levels. The following table shows:

Table 4-1-2 Risk grading quantification and characterization

Table 4-1-2 Risk grading quantification and characterization

Risk level


Quantification range

Risk Level Feature Description

I level

low risk

[ 85 , 100 ]

It is almost impossible to have a fire, the risk of fire is low, the risk of fire is at an acceptable level, and risk control focuses on maintenance and management.

II level

Medium risk

[ 65 , 85 ]

General fires may occur, the fire risk is moderate, the fire risk is at a controllable level, and the acceptance level may be achieved after appropriate measures are taken. Risk control focuses on local rectification and strengthening management.

III level

high risk

[ 25 , 65 ]

Large fires may occur, the fire risk is high, and the fire risk is at a relatively difficult level of control. Measures should be taken to strengthen the construction of fire protection infrastructure and improve the level of fire management.

IV level

Extremely high risk

[ 0 , 25 ]

Major or extraordinarily large fires may occur, the fire risk is extremely high, and the fire risk is at a level that is difficult to control. Comprehensive measures shall be taken to improve the design of the building and the active fire prevention facilities, strengthen the control of the hazards, and strengthen the fire management and rescue. power.

The correspondence between fire risk grading and fire rating is:

1) very high risk / particularly serious fire, a major fire caused particularly serious fire means that more than 30 people were killed or seriously injured more than 100 people, or 1 billion yuan direct fire damage to property;

A major fire is a fire that causes death of 10 to 30 people, or 50 to 100 serious injuries, or direct property loss of 50 million yuan to 100 million yuan;

2 ) High-risk / large-scale fire refers to a fire that causes death of more than 3 persons but less than 10 persons, or serious injury of 10 to 50 persons, or direct property loss of 10 million to 50 million yuan;

3 ) Medium risk / general fire is a fire that causes death of less than 3 persons, or serious injury of 10 or less, or direct property loss of less than 10 million yuan.

(five) determine the assessment conclusion

Based on the results of the assessment, clearly state the fire safety status of the building design or the building itself, and propose reasonable and feasible fire safety advice.

(VI) Risk Control

According to the results of fire risk analysis and calculation, following the principle of pertinence, technical feasibility, and economic rationality, according to the current risk reduction, risk reduction, risk transfer, risk retention and other four risk control measures, according to the current economy, The control measures that can be adopted under the conditions of technology, resources, etc., propose technical measures and management measures to eliminate or reduce fire risks.

Third, pay attention to matters

When conducting regional fire risk assessments, attention should be paid to the collection of relevant fire infrastructures, such as fire stations and municipal fire water sources.

According to the requirements of the "Standard for Urban Fire Station Construction Standards" ( Building Standard 152-2011) issued jointly by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development and the National Development and Reform Commission , the general fire station should not be more than 7Km 2 ; the ordinary fire stations located in the suburbs should not be larger than 15Km 2.

(I) Suggestions

1. High-risk control measures and work recommendations

2 ) High-rise buildings

( 1 ) Risk Level: High Risk

( 2 ) Control measures

1 Strict high-rise building fire engineering inspection and acceptance; reasonable planning of building layout, setting up fire separation, preventing the spread of fire along the pipeline space; improving the fire resistance rating of the building itself to reduce the fire incidence; perfecting the building's own fire protection facilities and strengthening daily maintenance Maintenance, strict supervision and inspection to ensure that the fire facilities are complete and easy to use;

(2) Strengthen the supervision and inspection of fire protection; strengthen the training and education of high-level building fire control room personnel and fire protection personnel;

3 Supervise the use of high-rise buildings and management units, clarify the fire control work management departments, improve the fire safety management system, and implement fire management responsibilities at all levels. Establish fire prevention files, fire protection facilities fire prevention files;

4 Intensify publicity and education to raise people's awareness of fire safety. Strengthen propaganda and education for owners, organize fire emergency evacuation drills on a regular basis, and ensure that people in high-rise buildings can quickly escape in the event of a fire accident and reduce casualties;

5 Establish a remote monitoring system for urban building fire-fighting facilities and fire safety management, adopt advanced technical precautions to improve the safety level of super-high-rise buildings, strengthen the monitoring of the operation of high-rise super high-rise buildings fire-fighting facilities, and accelerate the construction of aviation fire brigades.

3 ) Inflammable and Explosive Hazardous Chemicals Production Enterprises and Storage Warehouses

( 1 ) Risk Level: High Risk

( 2 ) Control measures

1 Strictly implement the fire safety responsibility system;

(2) Locations for places where production, storage, sales, and use of flammable and explosive chemicals are used must meet the requirements of fire engineering standards for construction. Items that have different chemical reactions or extinguishing methods from each other must not be mixed or mixed. The storage of dangerous goods must meet the requirements of national standards;

3 Set up a signboard indicating the performance of chemical dangerous goods and fire extinguishing methods at the warehouse or stockyard;

4Set up appropriate safety measures such as ventilation, cooling, flood prevention, lightning protection, fire protection, and protection in the warehouse or storage room;

5 Set up clear signs in fire-fighting areas and safe areas, prohibit smoking, use open fire, and enter motor vehicles in the reservoir area, storage tank area, and fire-fighting area, and take measures to eliminate sparks and electrical explosions;

6Promote dangerous goods units in accordance with the storage categories (1st, 2nd, and 3rd) with a corresponding number of professional and technical personnel. The custodial personnel must take special training and obtain certificates before they can take up posts.

2. Medium risk control measures and work recommendations

1 ) Fire station construction level

( 1 ) Risk Level: Medium Risk

( 2 ) Control measures

1 Strengthen the construction of public fire protection infrastructure for fire protection and speed up the construction of fire stations;

2 At the same time as planning urban construction, consider the construction of fire brigade stations and the construction of municipal fire hydrants;

3 Bring the construction of fire stations into the rapid approval channel of the municipal government, simplify procedures, shorten time limits, engage in early intervention by various approval departments, and simultaneously accept measures, strengthen coordination and cooperation, improve the efficiency of examination and approval, and effectively promote the construction speed of fire stations;

4 Expand investment channels for the construction of fire stations. On the basis of maintaining the dominant position of government investment, the proportion of capital investment at the municipal level will be further increased. At the same time, each district/county government shall be responsible for the investment in land requisition and demolition and municipal supporting funds. To develop a multi-channel investment and financing system for construction, we may consider introducing various financing methods such as bank loans and attracting social donations, alleviating government financial pressure, and establishing a multi-channel investment system;

5 Increase the investment in special fire-fighting vehicles and equipment. Focusing on the increasingly prominent reality of fires such as high-rise buildings and underground spaces, the company will continue to improve conventional equipment and increase special equipment to further strengthen the construction of vehicles at Special Service fire stations.

4 ) Traffic roads, fire lanes

( 1 ) Risk Level: Medium Risk

( 2 ) Control measures

1 Strengthen the urban road traffic construction process and increase the intensity of transformation;

2 Implement priority strategies for urban public transport, optimize public transport network, and vigorously develop rail transit;

3 All relevant departments shall strengthen the supervision of the road supervision of the community.

5 ) Implementation of Fire Responsibility System

( 1 ) Risk Level: Medium Risk

( 2 ) Control measures

1 Implement the fire safety responsibility system of government, enterprises, undertakings, agencies, and organizations;

2 Build three-level city, district, county, and township fire safety committee physical institution construction;

3 Establish a government responsibility tracking inspection system to strengthen the performance evaluation of fire safety work.

The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.

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