Only one atom thickest thinnest material is harder than diamonds

According to foreign media reports on the 10th, research laboratories around the world have produced the latest material Graphene, which is a two-dimensional crystal with a diameter of only one atom, but it is harder than diamonds, and the rate of transmission current is faster. The silicon in the computer chip is 100 times faster. This major discovery has spurred physicists, chemists and electronics engineers.

Andre Geim, a physicist at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, wrote in the June 19 issue of Science: "It is the thinnest material known in the world and is seen in history. The strongest material ever." Rod Ruoff, a researcher at graphene in the University of Texas at Austin, wrote in an e-mail: "Several grams of this material can cover the entire football field. "One gram is about one-thirtieth of an ounce.

Like diamonds, graphene is pure carbon. It consists of a hexagonal network of atoms, which, when viewed by an electron microscope, looks like a honeycomb or a fine wire mesh. Although it is strong, it is as flexible as a plastic wrap, and can be bent, folded, or rolled up like a reel. The refill in the pencil - graphite is made of graphene stacked together. Although each layer of graphene is tough, the layer-to-layer connection is very weak, so when you write with a pencil, a black mark is left on the paper.

Potential applications for graphene include touch screens, solar cells, energy storage devices, cell phones, and high-speed computer chips. However, Jim said that it will take a long time to replace the basic electronic material silicon in the computer chip with this material. Five years ago he was the first to discover how to make graphene. Tomas Palacios, a researcher at Graphite Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: "In the midst of this and the mid-stage of this research, graphene is difficult to replace silicon and become the main material for computer electronics. Silicon is a For industries with trillions of dollars worth of dollars, the perfect silicon processing technology has been produced for more than 40 years."

Government and university laboratories, long-established companies such as the International Business Machines Corporation, and newly established small businesses are working hard to solve the problems encountered in the manufacture of graphene, hoping to eventually turn it into a useful product. Raf founded Graphene Energy in Austin, whose main intent is to find ways to store renewable energy from solar cells or to collect the energy generated by car brakes. The Pentagon is also very interested in this new high-tech material. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) spent $22 million to study ways to make computer chips and transistors from graphene.

At the annual meeting of the American Physical Society in Pittsburgh in April, graphene was the main topic of discussion among scientists. The researchers used 23 discussion sessions to discuss issues related to this material. In 2008, there were approximately 1,500 scientific papers related to graphene. Until last year, scientists found the only way to attach a layer of graphite to a transparent adhesive and then slowly separate a layer of graphite from the tape to make graphene. They call this the "Scotch Tape technique."

Recently, however, scientists have found a more efficient way to produce graphene by placing graphite on copper, nickel or silicon and then carefully separating them. In the report of Science, Jem said: "The development of graphene production technology in the last two or three months is very amazing. The production of graphene two years ago is still a daunting challenge, but now it is difficult. Suddenly reduced," said Ruff. "I believe that graphene has a lot of commercial value. We will start to develop a dual-purpose device, which is mainly made of silicon, but the important components are made of graphene."

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