New tool steel for improving the performance of die-casting molds
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Most die-casting molds are complex in design and costly, so molds are also required to have a long service life. In the production cost of the whole set of die-casting molds, although the cost of materials and heat treatment only accounts for 10% to 15%, it has a decisive influence on the overall life of the mold.
In the European die casting industry, there are three of the most common hot work die steels:
H11 (1.2343), this material combines the characteristics of high hardness and high toughness, in line with many requirements of hot work die steel.
H13 (1.2344), which is the standard steel grade in the United States. Compared with H11 steel, this material has higher carbon and vanadium content and thus has stronger wear resistance, but the toughness is relatively weaker.
1.2367, this material is used quite widely in the European market and is characterized by its resistance to thermal mutation.
The main alloy components of the above three martensitic hot work die steels are chromium, molybdenum and vanadium. In order to meet today's increasingly high mechanical performance requirements, they are smelted by electroslag remelting processes.
H11 steel provides excellent toughness, and 1.2367 steel provides excellent high temperature strength. The former is suitable for stress cracking and the latter is recommended for applications where thermal fatigue fracture is at high risk.
KIND's newly researched TQ1 material successfully combines the high toughness and high temperature resistance of these two steels. Its chemical composition reflects the most advanced technological research results in Europe, not only contains very low phosphorus, sulfur, but also harmful micro-elements (such as aluminum, boron, copper and zinc) indicators have reached the minimum standards. Through advanced electroslag remelting smelting process, TQ1 achieves a high level of purity, combined with extremely high toughness and excellent thermal fatigue resistance, all of which ensure the long life of the mold.
Another property that determines the life of a mold is the ability to convert steel, that is, the ability to inhibit the formation of bainite. Bainite is a hard, brittle structure that causes the central portion of a large mold to be insufficiently cooled to form the desired martensitic transformation. The bainite transformation of TQ1 is 25 minutes later than the H11 material, which makes the heat treatment easier.
In view of the excellent high temperature resistance of TQ1, the molds produced with TQ1 materials are much more resistant to thermal stress during operation and operation than H11 molds. And compared to the H11 mold, TQ1 mold also has significant advantages in high temperature strength, toughness, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity.
TQ1 is not only suitable for two-sided forged bars, but also for six-sided forged blocks. The three-dimensional forging process undergoes strong plastic deformation and therefore provides excellent isotropy and toughness. The three-dimensional forging material also shows an advantage in the heat treatment process. In a three-dimensionally forged material, the difference in microstructure is much smaller than that on both sides. Generally, this process is processed according to the size required by the user.
The material quality of hot work die steel can be reflected not only from the life of the mold, but also from the quality of the die casting. For example, Germany's Mercedes-Benz has prepared a set of two-cavity molds for its transmission. The core materials are TQ1 (Fig. 1) and H11 (Fig. 2). The figure shows that the mold is finally scrapped at the same position. The pre-crack condition. The final life of the mold of TQ1 material is more than twice that of the mold of H11 material.
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