Comprehensive diagnosis of motion faults of CNC machine tools

The fault of the CNC machine tool is partly through the self-diagnosis function of the CNC machine tool. The alarm shows the type of fault and prompts the possible cause of the fault. It provides the maintenance personnel with some clues to analyze and judge the real fault location and cause. Here, in addition to less teaching failure, the self-diagnosis display function can easily diagnose the fault (such as memory alarm, power supply voltage over-alarm, etc.), most of the faults are caused by comprehensive faults, that is, a fault phenomenon may be caused by Caused by a variety of reasons, mechanical, electrical or control systems; or a defect may cause a variety of faults, that is, the causal relationship of the fault is not a simple one-to-one correspondence. Therefore, the real cause of the failure cannot be determined quickly and simply, and sufficient investigation, testing, etc. are required, and finally, the comprehensive analysis can confirm the diagnosis.

1. Fully investigate the fault scene of CNC machine tools

After the machine tool fails, the maintenance personnel should investigate the operator at the fault site, under what circumstances the fault occurred, and what measures have been taken. And to make full use of the "black box", carefully observe the working register and the buffer work register remains. Learn about the executed program. When there is a diagnosis display alarm, open the electrical cabinet to observe whether there is a corresponding alarm red light on the printed circuit board. After that, you can press the reset button of the CNC system to observe whether the alarm is eliminated after the system reset. If it is eliminated, most of them belong to software failure. Otherwise, it belongs to hardware failure.

2. List the possible causes of CNC machine tool failure

For example, when a CNC machine tool performs linear interpolation on the x and y axes, uniform stripes appear, which may be caused by uneven feed speed of a certain coordinate. Possible reasons for the uneven feed rate of the shaft are:

(1) The X or y axis control feed rate signal fluctuates greatly.

(2) The x or y axis has a creeping phenomenon during the feed motion.

(3) The strip of the x or y-axis rail is too tight. The damping is too large or the friction of the rail guard is large.

(4) The position detection component (such as a resolver) has an eccentric error in connection with the servo motor, causing the drive to be suddenly loose.

(5) The coupling between the motor and the ball screw is loose.

(6) The servo motor itself is not working properly.

3. Diagnosis of the original fault garden

According to the fault phenomenon, combined with the on-site investigation, make full use of the technical files of the machine tool (such as maintenance records, operation records, etc.), refer to the many factors listed in the machine maintenance manual, and if necessary, use the instrument to conduct some tests and develop an analysis and diagnosis. The procedure, starting from the most likely factors, eliminates the false phenomenon one by one, and finally finds out the real cause of the failure.

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